Refine your search

The results of your search are listed below alongside the search terms you entered on the previous page. You can refine your search by amending any of the parameters in the form and resubmitting it.

Ibaraki-doji was an <i>oni</i> (demon / ogre) in Japanese tales and legends from the Heian Era. The demon was known to go on murderous rampages throughout the countryside and across Kyoto. She would also fool innocent travellers and kill them, wearing various disguises to lure them in.<br/><br/>

Once, she tried to kill the legtendary samurai Watanabe no Tsuna as he was travelling, appearing as a beautiful maiden who needed help. When Tsuna approached, the girl transformed into an <i>oni</i> and grabbed him by his hair, flying through the air to Mount Atago. Tsuna, not panicking, easily cut off the demon's arm however, causing Ibaraki-doji to flee. Tsuna took the arm back as a trophy to his estate.<br/><br/>

Seven days later, Tsuna was visited by his aunt Mashiba, and when he told her of his ordeal with the <i>oni</i>, she asked to see the severed arm. When Tsuna complied and brought it out, Mashiba suddenly transformed into Ibaraki-doji, who grabbed the arm and then flew away. So shocked was Tsuna that he did not try to stop the demon.
Shiragi Saburo, born as Minamoto no Yoshimitsu, was a samurai from the Minamoto clan who lived during the Heian Period. He was brother of the famed Minamoto no Yoshiie. Yoshimitsu is renowned for founding the martial art, <i>Daito-ryu aiki-jujutsu</i> (jujutsu).<br/><br/>

It is said that Yoshimitsu studied where to strike vital points and joint lock techinques by dissecting the corpses of men killed in battle. He served during the Later Three-Year War (1083-1087), and was made lord of Kai Province for his service.
'The Tale of the Heike' is a Japanese epic account of the conflict between the Minamoto and Taira clans over control of Japan which occurred near the end of the 12th century CE, known as the Genpei War (1180-1185). The tale is often described as a Japanese 'Iliad', and has been translated into English multiple times.<br/><br/>

The Genpei War occurred during the late Heian Period, and ultimately saw the fall of the Taira clan and the rise of the Minamoto clan. Minamoto no Yoritomo, clan leader, then established the Kamakura shogunate, which would rule over Japan for roughly 150 years. The Kamakura shogunate began the suppression of the emperor's power and the rise of samurai influence and power.
This set of paintings is the oldest and largest extant illustrated biography of Prince Regent Shotoku (574-622). It depicts places and events related to the traditional account of his life, stemming from the veneration of the prince that began in the Nara period (710-794).<br/><br/>

These paintings were originally on fixed doors that adorned the Picture Hall in the East Precinct of Horyu-ji Temple. They were remounted as freestanding screens in the Edo period (1615-1868), and in recent times were again remounted on ten panels.<br/><br/>

Records tell us that Hata no Chitei, an artist from Settsu Province (present-day Osaka Prefecture), painted them during the second to fifth month of Enkyu 1 (1069).
This set of paintings is the oldest and largest extant illustrated biography of Prince Regent Shotoku (574-622). It depicts places and events related to the traditional account of his life, stemming from the veneration of the prince that began in the Nara period (710-794).<br/><br/>

These paintings were originally on fixed doors that adorned the Picture Hall in the East Precinct of Horyu-ji Temple. They were remounted as freestanding screens in the Edo period (1615-1868), and in recent times were again remounted on ten panels.<br/><br/>

Records tell us that Hata no Chitei, an artist from Settsu Province (present-day Osaka Prefecture), painted them during the second to fifth month of Enkyu 1 (1069).
This set of paintings is the oldest and largest extant illustrated biography of Prince Regent Shotoku (574-622). It depicts places and events related to the traditional account of his life, stemming from the veneration of the prince that began in the Nara period (710-794).<br/><br/>

These paintings were originally on fixed doors that adorned the Picture Hall in the East Precinct of Horyu-ji Temple. They were remounted as freestanding screens in the Edo period (1615-1868), and in recent times were again remounted on ten panels.<br/><br/>

Records tell us that Hata no Chitei, an artist from Settsu Province (present-day Osaka Prefecture), painted them during the second to fifth month of Enkyu 1 (1069).
This set of paintings is the oldest and largest extant illustrated biography of Prince Regent Shotoku (574-622). It depicts places and events related to the traditional account of his life, stemming from the veneration of the prince that began in the Nara period (710-794).<br/><br/>

These paintings were originally on fixed doors that adorned the Picture Hall in the East Precinct of Horyu-ji Temple. They were remounted as freestanding screens in the Edo period (1615-1868), and in recent times were again remounted on ten panels.<br/><br/>

Records tell us that Hata no Chitei, an artist from Settsu Province (present-day Osaka Prefecture), painted them during the second to fifth month of Enkyu 1 (1069).
This set of paintings is the oldest and largest extant illustrated biography of Prince Regent Shotoku (574-622). It depicts places and events related to the traditional account of his life, stemming from the veneration of the prince that began in the Nara period (710-794).<br/><br/>

These paintings were originally on fixed doors that adorned the Picture Hall in the East Precinct of Horyu-ji Temple. They were remounted as freestanding screens in the Edo period (1615-1868), and in recent times were again remounted on ten panels.<br/><br/>

Records tell us that Hata no Chitei, an artist from Settsu Province (present-day Osaka Prefecture), painted them during the second to fifth month of Enkyu 1 (1069).
Guanyin is an East Asian bodhisattva associated with compassion as venerated by Mahayana Buddhists.<br/><br/>

It is generally accepted among East Asian adherents that Guanyin originated as the Bodhisattva Avalokitesvara. Commonly known in English as the Mercy Goddess or Goddess of Mercy but often depicted as both male and female to show this figure's limitless transcendence beyond gender.<br/><br/>

Sahasrabhuja, the Thousand-Armed Avalokitesvara, is a popular manifestation that 'sees and helps all'.
Mahamayuri (Chinese: Kongque Mingwang,  Japanese: Kujaku Myoo), is one of the Wisdom Kings in the Buddhist Pantheon. Mahamayuri is a peaceful personification, in contrast to the wrathful attitudes of male personifications of the Wisdom Kings. Mahamayuri had the power to protect devotees from poisoning, either physical or spiritual.<br/><br/> 

In Vajrayana Buddhism, a Wisdom King (Sanskrit Vidyaraja, Chinese: Mingwang; Japanese pronunciation: Myoo) is the third type of deity after Buddhas and Bodhisattvas.
Akasagarbha Bodhisattva (Sanskrit: Chinese: Xukongzang Pusa; Japanese pronunciation: Kokuzo Bosatsu) is a bodhisattva who is associated with the great element (<i>mahabhuta</i>) of space (<i>akasa</i>).<br/><br/> 

Akasagarbha is considered one of the eight great bodhisattvas. His name can be translated as 'boundless space treasury' as his wisdom is said to be boundless as space itself.
Samantabhadra (Sanskrit, 'Universal Worthy') is a bodhisattva in Mahayana Buddhism associated with practice and meditation. Together with Gautama Buddha and his fellow bodhisattva Manjusri, he forms the Shakyamuni trinity in Buddhism. He is the patron of the Lotus Sutra and, according to the Avatamsaka Sutra, made the ten great vows which are the basis of a bodhisattva.<br/><br/> 

In Japan, this bodhisattva is often venerated by the Tendai and in Shingon Buddhism, and as the protector of the Lotus Sutra by Nichiren Buddhism. In the Nyingma school of Tibetan Buddhism, Samantabhadra is also the name of the Adi-Buddha – in indivisible Yab-Yum with his consort, Samantabhadri.
Sei Shonagon (c. 966-1017) was a Japanese author and a court lady who served the Empress Teishi (Empress Sadako) around the year 1000 during the middle Heian period, and is best known as the author of 'The Pillow Book' (<i>Makura no Sosh</i>).<br/><br/>

She achieved fame through her work 'The Pillow Book', a collection of lists, gossip, poetry, observations, complaints and anything else she found of interest during her years in the court. Her writing depicts the court of the young Empress as full of an elegant and merry atmosphere.
Sugawara no Michizane (August 1, 845 – March 26, 903), also known as Kan Shojo or Kanke, was a scholar, poet, and politician of the Heian Period of Japan. He is regarded as an accomplished poet, particularly in Chinese poetry, and is today revered as the god of learning, Tenman-Tenjin, often shortened to Tenjin.<br/><br/>

He was appointed ambassador to China in the 890s, but instead came out in support of abolition of the imperial embassies to China in 894, because of the decline of the Tang Dynasty.
Tachibana no Hayanari (c. 782 - September 24, 844 CE) was a Heian period Japanese government official, calligrapher, and member of the Tachibana family. He travelled to China in 804, returning in 806. His most famous surviving calligraphic work is the <i>Ito Naishin'no Ganmon</i>, now in the Imperial Household collection. He is honored as one of the group of three outstanding calligraphers called <i>Sanpitsu</i> ('Three Brushes').<br/><br/>

He is honored posthumously as a <i>kami</i> at Kami Goryo Shrine Kyoto.<br/><br/>

Totoya Hokkei was a Japanese printmaker and book illustrator. He initially studied painting with Kano Yosen (1735-1808), the head of the Kobikicho branch of the Kano School and <i>okaeshi</i> (official painter) to the Tokugawa shogunate.<br/><br/> 

Together with Teisai Hokuba (1771-1844), Hokkei was one of Katsushika Hokusai's best students.
Heian-kyō (平安京, literally 'tranquility and peace capital') was one of several former names for the city now known as Kyoto. It was the capital of Japan for over one thousand years, from 794 to 1868 with an interruption in 1180.<br/><br/>

Emperor Kammu established it as the capital in 794, moving the Imperial Court there from nearby Nagaoka-kyō at the recommendation of his advisor Wake no Kiyomaro and marking the beginning of the Heian period of Japanese history. The city was modelled after the Tang Dynasty Chinese capital of Chang'an (modern-day Xi'an). It remained the chief political center until 1185, when the samurai Minamoto clan defeated the Taira clan in the Genpei War, moving administration of national affairs to Kamakura and establishing the Kamakura shogunate.<br/><br/>

Though political power would be wielded by the samurai class over the course of three different shogunates, Heian remained the site of the Imperial Court and seat of Imperial power, and thus remained the official capital. In fact, even after the seat of Imperial power was moved to Tokyo in 1868, since there is no law which makes Tokyo the capital, there is a view that Kyoto legally or officially remains the capital even today.
<i>Bugaku</i>, a court dance accompanied by <i>Gagaku</i>  music, is a Japanese traditional dance blending Buddhist and Shinto elements that has been performed to select elites mostly in Japanese imperial courts for over twelve hundred years.<br/><br/>

In this way it has been an upper class secret, although after World War II the dance was opened to the public and has even toured around the world in 1959. The dance is marked by its slow, precise and regal movements.<br/><br/>

The dancers wear intricate traditional Buddhist costumes, which usually include equally beautiful masks. The music and dance pattern is often repeated several times. It is performed on a square platform, usually 6m by 6m.<br/><br/>

Representing one of twenty standard characters that appear in Bugaku dance performance, <i>sanju</i>  masks are a fine example of the exaggerated realism that captures a symbolic emotion or expression for dramatic stage effect. The earliest Bugaku masks were made by imperial craftsmen in dry lacquer.
Vairocana (also Vairochana or Mahavairocana, is a celestial buddha who is often interpreted, in texts like the Flower Garland Sutra, as the Bliss Body of the historical Buddha (Siddhartha Gautama).<br/><br/>

In Chinese, Korean, and Japanese Buddhism, Vairocana is also seen as the embodiment of the Buddhist concept of Emptiness. In the conception of the Five Wisdom Buddhas of Mahayana and Vajrayana Buddhism, Vairocana is at the centre and is considered a Primordial Buddha.
<i>Bugaku</i>, a court dance accompanied by <i>Gagaku</i>  music, is a Japanese traditional dance blending Buddhist and Shinto elements that has been performed to select elites mostly in Japanese imperial courts for over twelve hundred years.<br/><br/>

In this way it has been an upper class secret, although after World War II the dance was opened to the public and has even toured around the world in 1959. The dance is marked by its slow, precise and regal movements.<br/><br/>

The dancers wear intricate traditional Buddhist costumes, which usually include equally beautiful masks. The music and dance pattern is often repeated several times. It is performed on a square platform, usually 6m by 6m.<br/><br/>

Representing one of twenty standard characters that appear in Bugaku dance performance masks are a fine example of the exaggerated realism that captures a symbolic emotion or expression for dramatic stage effect. The earliest Bugaku masks were made by imperial craftsmen in dry lacquer.
Guanyin, short for Guanshiyin, is a bodhisattva in Mahayana Buddhism often associated with compassion and mercy. While she is often portrayed as a woman, she is beyond gender and can be depicted as both male and female.<br/><br/>

Guanyin is often referred to as the 'most widely beloved Buddhist Divinity', due to her miraculous powers and her loving compassion. She is not only worshipped in Buddhism, but also in Taoism and Chinese folk religion, with various stories and legends about her. Guanyin plays a very important role in the classic Chinese novel 'Journey to the West.'<br/><br/>

She is known by various names in different nations, with the Japanese calling her Kannon/Kwannon, or more formally Kanzeon, while in Thailand she is called Kuan Im. She is extremely popular, with temples dedicated to her found throughout South and East Asia, especially in China and Chinese folk religion.
In 833, Emperor Nimmyo named Tsunetsugu the Imperial ambassador to China. He was the last envoy from Japan to China during the Heian period.<br/><br/>

The diplomatic mission left Kyushu in 838; Tsunetsugu returned to Japan in 839. The mission party included the Buddhist monk Ennin.
<i>Bugaku</i>, a court dance accompanied by <i>Gagaku</i>  music, is a Japanese traditional dance blending Buddhist and Shinto elements that has been performed to select elites mostly in Japanese imperial courts for over twelve hundred years.<br/><br/>

In this way it has been an upper class secret, although after World War II the dance was opened to the public and has even toured around the world in 1959. The dance is marked by its slow, precise and regal movements.<br/><br/>

The dancers wear intricate traditional Buddhist costumes, which usually include equally beautiful masks. The music and dance pattern is often repeated several times. It is performed on a square platform, usually 6m by 6m.<br/><br/>

Representing one of twenty standard characters that appear in Bugaku dance performance masks are a fine example of the exaggerated realism that captures a symbolic emotion or expression for dramatic stage effect. The earliest Bugaku masks were made by imperial craftsmen in dry lacquer.
In 833, Emperor Ninmyo named Tsunetsugu the Imperial ambassador to China. He was the last envoy from Japan to China during the Heian period.<br/><br/>

The diplomatic mission left Kyushu in 838; Tsunetsugu returned to Japan in 839. The mission party included the Buddhist monk Ennin as well as Ono no Takamura.
Junna had six Empresses and Imperial consorts and 13 Imperial sons and daughters. His personal name (imina) was Ōtomo (大伴).<br/><br/>

Junna is traditionally venerated at his tomb; the Imperial Household Agency designates Ōharano no Nishi no Minenoe no Misasagi (大原野西嶺上陵, Ōharano no Nishi no Minenoe Imperial Mausoleum), in Nishikyō-ku, Kyoto, as the location of Junna's mausoleum.
Born Satō Norikiyo (佐藤 義清) in Kyoto to a noble family, Saigyo lived during the traumatic transition of power between the old court nobles and the new samurai warriors. After the start of the Age of Mappō (1052), Buddhism was considered to be in decline and no longer as effective a means of salvation.<br/><br/>
 
These cultural shifts during his lifetime led to a sense of melancholy in his poetry. As a youth, he worked as a guard to retired Emperor Toba, but in 1140 at age 22, for reasons now unknown, he quit worldly life to become a monk, taking the religious name En'i (円位). He later took the pen name, 'Saigyō' meaning Western Journey, a reference to Amida Buddha and the Western paradise. He lived alone for long periods in his life in Saga, Mt Koya, Mt Yoshino, Ise, and many other places, but he is more known for the many long, poetic journeys he took to Northern Honshū that would later inspire Bashō in his Narrow Road to the Interior.<br/><br/>

He was a good friend of Fujiwara no Teika. Some main collections of Saigyō's work are in the Sankashū, Shin Kokin Wakashū, and Shika Wakashū. He died in Hirokawa Temple in Kawachi Province (present-day Osaka Prefecture) at age 72.
Ono no Komachi was a Japanese waka poet, one of the Rokkasen—the Six best Waka poets of the early Heian period. She was renowned for her unusual beauty, and Komachi is today a synonym for feminine beauty in Japan.
Sei Shonagon (c. 966-1017) was a Japanese author and a court lady who served the Empress Teishi (Empress Sadako) around the year 1000 during the middle Heian period, and is best known as the author of The Pillow Book 'Makura no Soshi'. <br/><br/>

She achieved fame through her work The Pillow Book, a collection of lists, gossip, poetry, observations, complaints and anything else she found of interest during her years in the court. Her writing depicts the court of the young Empress as full of an elegant and merry atmosphere.
Sei Shonagon (c. 966-1017) was a Japanese author and a court lady who served the Empress Teishi (Empress Sadako) around the year 1000 during the middle Heian period, and is best known as the author of The Pillow Book 'Makura no Soshi'. <br/><br/>

She achieved fame through her work The Pillow Book, a collection of lists, gossip, poetry, observations, complaints and anything else she found of interest during her years in the court. Her writing depicts the court of the young Empress as full of an elegant and merry atmosphere.
Izumi Shikibu (和泉式部?, b. 976?) was a mid Heian period Japanese poet. She is a member of the Thirty-six Medieval Poetry Immortals (中古三十六歌仙 chūko sanjurokkasen). She was the contemporary of Murasaki Shikibu, and Akazome Emon at the court of Joto Mon'in
Akazome Emon (赤染衛門, 956–1041) was a Japanese waka poet and early historian who lived in the mid-Heian period. She is a member both of the Thirty Six Elder Poetic Sages (中古三十六歌仙 Chūko Sanjūrokkasen) and the Thirty Six Female Poetic Sages (女房三十六歌仙 Nyōbō Sanjūrokkasen).
The Shihon choshoku yamai no soshi ('Diseases and Deformities', 紙本著色病草紙) is a late Heian (12th century) hand scroll (emakimono) consisting of colour paintings on paper that has, at some time, been cut into ten separate sections. They are preserved in the Kyoto National Museum and are listed as a National Treasure of Japan.
The Shihon choshoku yamai no soshi ('Diseases and Deformities', 紙本著色病草紙) is a late Heian (12th century) hand scroll (emakimono) consisting of colour paintings on paper that has, at some time, been cut into ten separate sections. They are preserved in the Kyoto National Museum and are listed as a National Treasure of Japan.
The Shihon choshoku yamai no soshi ('Diseases and Deformities', 紙本著色病草紙) is a late Heian (12th century) hand scroll (emakimono) consisting of colour paintings on paper that has, at some time, been cut into ten separate sections. They are preserved in the Kyoto National Museum and are listed as a National Treasure of Japan.
The Shihon choshoku yamai no soshi ('Diseases and Deformities', 紙本著色病草紙) is a late Heian (12th century) hand scroll (emakimono) consisting of colour paintings on paper that has, at some time, been cut into ten separate sections. They are preserved in the Kyoto National Museum and are listed as a National Treasure of Japan.
The Shihon choshoku yamai no soshi ('Diseases and Deformities', 紙本著色病草紙) is a late Heian (12th century) hand scroll (emakimono) consisting of colour paintings on paper that has, at some time, been cut into ten separate sections. They are preserved in the Kyoto National Museum and are listed as a National Treasure of Japan.
The Shihon choshoku yamai no soshi ('Diseases and Deformities', 紙本著色病草紙) is a late Heian (12th century) hand scroll (emakimono) consisting of colour paintings on paper that has, at some time, been cut into ten separate sections. They are preserved in the Kyoto National Museum and are listed as a National Treasure of Japan.
The Shihon choshoku yamai no soshi ('Diseases and Deformities', 紙本著色病草紙) is a late Heian (12th century) hand scroll (emakimono) consisting of colour paintings on paper that has, at some time, been cut into ten separate sections. They are preserved in the Kyoto National Museum and are listed as a National Treasure of Japan.
The Shihon choshoku yamai no soshi ('Diseases and Deformities', 紙本著色病草紙) is a late Heian (12th century) hand scroll (emakimono) consisting of colour paintings on paper that has, at some time, been cut into ten separate sections. They are preserved in the Kyoto National Museum and are listed as a National Treasure of Japan.
The Shihon choshoku yamai no soshi ('Diseases and Deformities', 紙本著色病草紙) is a late Heian (12th century) hand scroll (emakimono) consisting of colour paintings on paper that has, at some time, been cut into ten separate sections. They are preserved in the Kyoto National Museum and are listed as a National Treasure of Japan.
Empress Jingu was consort to Emperor Chuai (notionally 192 – 200 CE), she also served as Regent from the time of her husband's death in 209 until her son Emperor Ōjin acceded to the throne in 269.No firm dates can be assigned to this historical figure's life or reign.<br/><br/>

Jingū is regarded by historians as a 'legendary' figure because of the paucity of information about her. Legend has it that she led an army in an invasion of Korea and returned to Japan victorious after three years. However, this theory is widely rejected even in Japan as there is no evidence of Japanese rule in any part of Korea at this early period.<br/><br/>

Some believe that Empress Jingū's conquest is only based on the Gwanggaeto Stele (in Jilin, China). But the legend of Jingū's invasion of the Korean peninsula also appears in the ancient Japanese chronicles <i>Kojiki</i> written in 680 and <i>Nihon Shoki</i> written in 720.
A member of the Thirty-six Medieval Poetry Immortals, Izumi Shikibu served at the court of Empress Shoshi (988–1074).<br/><br/>

She is best known for the Izumi Shikibu Collection (和泉式部集 Izumi Shikibu-shū) and the Imperial anthologies. Her life of love and passion earned her the nickname of 'The Floating Lady' from Michinaga. Her poetry is characterized by passion and sentimental appeal. Her style was the direct opposite of that of Akazome Emon, even though both served in the same court and were close friends.<br/><br/>

At the court she also nursed a growing rivalry with Murasaki Shikibu, who had a similar poetic style, though this rivalry pales in comparison with Murasaki Shikibu's spirited competition with Sei Shōnagon. Izumi Shikibu's emotional poetry won her the praise of many at the court, including Fujiwara no Kinto.
A member of the Thirty-six Medieval Poetry Immortals, Izumi Shikibu served at the court of Empress Shoshi (988–1074).<br/><br/>

She is best known for the Izumi Shikibu Collection (和泉式部集 Izumi Shikibu-shū) and the Imperial anthologies. Her life of love and passion earned her the nickname of 'The Floating Lady' from Michinaga. Her poetry is characterized by passion and sentimental appeal. Her style was the direct opposite of that of Akazome Emon, even though both served in the same court and were close friends.<br/><br/>

At the court she also nursed a growing rivalry with Murasaki Shikibu, who had a similar poetic style, though this rivalry pales in comparison with Murasaki Shikibu's spirited competition with Sei Shōnagon. Izumi Shikibu's emotional poetry won her the praise of many at the court, including Fujiwara no Kinto.
A member of the Thirty-six Medieval Poetry Immortals, Izumi Shikibu served at the court of Empress Shoshi (988–1074).<br/><br/>

She is best known for the Izumi Shikibu Collection (和泉式部集 Izumi Shikibu-shū) and the Imperial anthologies. Her life of love and passion earned her the nickname of 'The Floating Lady' from Michinaga. Her poetry is characterized by passion and sentimental appeal. Her style was the direct opposite of that of Akazome Emon, even though both served in the same court and were close friends.<br/><br/>

At the court she also nursed a growing rivalry with Murasaki Shikibu, who had a similar poetic style, though this rivalry pales in comparison with Murasaki Shikibu's spirited competition with Sei Shōnagon. Izumi Shikibu's emotional poetry won her the praise of many at the court, including Fujiwara no Kinto.
A member of the Thirty-six Medieval Poetry Immortals, Izumi Shikibu served at the court of Empress Shoshi (988–1074).<br/><br/>

She is best known for the Izumi Shikibu Collection (和泉式部集 Izumi Shikibu-shū) and the Imperial anthologies. Her life of love and passion earned her the nickname of 'The Floating Lady' from Michinaga. Her poetry is characterized by passion and sentimental appeal. Her style was the direct opposite of that of Akazome Emon, even though both served in the same court and were close friends.<br/><br/>

At the court she also nursed a growing rivalry with Murasaki Shikibu, who had a similar poetic style, though this rivalry pales in comparison with Murasaki Shikibu's spirited competition with Sei Shōnagon. Izumi Shikibu's emotional poetry won her the praise of many at the court, including Fujiwara no Kinto.
The Genpei War (源平合戦 Genpei kassen, Genpei gassen) (1180–1185) was a conflict between the Taira and Minamoto clans during the late-Heian period of Japan. It resulted in the fall of the Taira clan and the establishment of the Kamakura shogunate under Minamoto Yoritomo in 1192.<br/><br/>

The Battle of Fujikawa (富士川の戦い Fujikawa no tatakai) was a battle of the Genpei War of the Heian period of Japanese history. It took place in 1180, in what is now Shizuoka Prefecture.<br/><br/>

Attempting to recover quickly from his exile, and to rebuild his army, Minamoto no Yoritomo sent out messengers to recruit other families. As he continued through the region below Mount Fuji and into Suruga Province, he planned a rendezvous with the Takeda clan and other families of the provinces of Kai and Kozuke to the north. These allies arrived just in time to fight off the pursuing Taira army. Supposedly, in the night, the Taira mistook the sound of a flock of birds for that of a Minamoto surprise attack, and fled, with no actual battle taking place.
A member of the Thirty-six Medieval Poetry Immortals, Izumi Shikibu served at the court of Empress Shoshi (988–1074).<br/><br/>

She is best known for the Izumi Shikibu Collection (和泉式部集 Izumi Shikibu-shū) and the Imperial anthologies. Her life of love and passion earned her the nickname of 'The Floating Lady' from Michinaga. Her poetry is characterized by passion and sentimental appeal. Her style was the direct opposite of that of Akazome Emon, even though both served in the same court and were close friends.<br/><br/>

At the court she also nursed a growing rivalry with Murasaki Shikibu, who had a similar poetic style, though this rivalry pales in comparison with Murasaki Shikibu's spirited competition with Sei Shōnagon. Izumi Shikibu's emotional poetry won her the praise of many at the court, including Fujiwara no Kinto.
A member of the Thirty-six Medieval Poetry Immortals, Izumi Shikibu served at the court of Empress Shoshi (988–1074).<br/><br/>

She is best known for the Izumi Shikibu Collection (和泉式部集 Izumi Shikibu-shū) and the Imperial anthologies. Her life of love and passion earned her the nickname of 'The Floating Lady' from Michinaga. Her poetry is characterized by passion and sentimental appeal. Her style was the direct opposite of that of Akazome Emon, even though both served in the same court and were close friends.<br/><br/>

At the court she also nursed a growing rivalry with Murasaki Shikibu, who had a similar poetic style, though this rivalry pales in comparison with Murasaki Shikibu's spirited competition with Sei Shōnagon. Izumi Shikibu's emotional poetry won her the praise of many at the court, including Fujiwara no Kinto.
A member of the Thirty-six Medieval Poetry Immortals, Izumi Shikibu served at the court of Empress Shoshi (988–1074).<br/><br/>

She is best known for the Izumi Shikibu Collection (和泉式部集 Izumi Shikibu-shū) and the Imperial anthologies. Her life of love and passion earned her the nickname of 'The Floating Lady' from Michinaga. Her poetry is characterized by passion and sentimental appeal. Her style was the direct opposite of that of Akazome Emon, even though both served in the same court and were close friends.<br/><br/>

At the court she also nursed a growing rivalry with Murasaki Shikibu, who had a similar poetic style, though this rivalry pales in comparison with Murasaki Shikibu's spirited competition with Sei Shōnagon. Izumi Shikibu's emotional poetry won her the praise of many at the court, including Fujiwara no Kinto.
Eleven-faced Goddess of Mercy (絹本著色十一面観音像, kenpon choshoku jūichimen kannonzō). Hanging scroll. Color on silk. Located in the Nara National Museum, Nara, Japan.
A member of the Thirty-six Medieval Poetry Immortals, Izumi Shikibu served at the court of Empress Shoshi (988–1074).<br/><br/>

She is best known for the Izumi Shikibu Collection (和泉式部集 Izumi Shikibu-shū) and the Imperial anthologies. Her life of love and passion earned her the nickname of 'The Floating Lady' from Michinaga. Her poetry is characterized by passion and sentimental appeal. Her style was the direct opposite of that of Akazome Emon, even though both served in the same court and were close friends.<br/><br/>

At the court she also nursed a growing rivalry with Murasaki Shikibu, who had a similar poetic style, though this rivalry pales in comparison with Murasaki Shikibu's spirited competition with Sei Shōnagon. Izumi Shikibu's emotional poetry won her the praise of many at the court, including Fujiwara no Kinto.
A member of the Thirty-six Medieval Poetry Immortals, Izumi Shikibu served at the court of Empress Shoshi (988–1074).<br/><br/>

She is best known for the Izumi Shikibu Collection (和泉式部集 Izumi Shikibu-shū) and the Imperial anthologies. Her life of love and passion earned her the nickname of 'The Floating Lady' from Michinaga. Her poetry is characterized by passion and sentimental appeal. Her style was the direct opposite of that of Akazome Emon, even though both served in the same court and were close friends.<br/><br/>

At the court she also nursed a growing rivalry with Murasaki Shikibu, who had a similar poetic style, though this rivalry pales in comparison with Murasaki Shikibu's spirited competition with Sei Shōnagon. Izumi Shikibu's emotional poetry won her the praise of many at the court, including Fujiwara no Kinto.
A member of the Thirty-six Medieval Poetry Immortals, Izumi Shikibu served at the court of Empress Shoshi (988–1074).<br/><br/>

She is best known for the Izumi Shikibu Collection (和泉式部集 Izumi Shikibu-shū) and the Imperial anthologies. Her life of love and passion earned her the nickname of 'The Floating Lady' from Michinaga. Her poetry is characterized by passion and sentimental appeal. Her style was the direct opposite of that of Akazome Emon, even though both served in the same court and were close friends.<br/><br/>

At the court she also nursed a growing rivalry with Murasaki Shikibu, who had a similar poetic style, though this rivalry pales in comparison with Murasaki Shikibu's spirited competition with Sei Shōnagon. Izumi Shikibu's emotional poetry won her the praise of many at the court, including Fujiwara no Kinto.
Sei Shonagon (c. 966-1017) was a Japanese author and a court lady who served the Empress Teishi (Empress Sadako) around the year 1000 during the middle Heian period, and is best known as the author of The Pillow Book 'Makura no Soshi'. She achieved fame through her work The Pillow Book, a collection of lists, gossip, poetry, observations, complaints and anything else she found of interest during her years in the court. Her writing depicts the court of the young Empress as full of an elegant and merry atmosphere.
Sei Shonagon (c. 966-1017) was a Japanese author and a court lady who served the Empress Teishi (Empress Sadako) around the year 1000 during the middle Heian period, and is best known as the author of The Pillow Book 'Makura no Soshi'. She achieved fame through her work The Pillow Book, a collection of lists, gossip, poetry, observations, complaints and anything else she found of interest during her years in the court. Her writing depicts the court of the young Empress as full of an elegant and merry atmosphere.
Sei Shonagon (c. 966-1017) was a Japanese author and a court lady who served the Empress Teishi (Empress Sadako) around the year 1000 during the middle Heian period, and is best known as the author of The Pillow Book 'Makura no Soshi'. She achieved fame through her work The Pillow Book, a collection of lists, gossip, poetry, observations, complaints and anything else she found of interest during her years in the court. Her writing depicts the court of the young Empress as full of an elegant and merry atmosphere.
Saichō (最澄, September 15, 767 – June 26, 822) was a Japanese Buddhist monk credited with founding the Tendai school in Japan, based around the Chinese Tiantai tradition he was exposed to during his trip to China beginning in 804.<br/><br/>

He founded the temple and headquarters of Tendai at Enryaku-ji on Mt. Hiei near Kyoto. He is also said to have been the first to bring tea to Japan.