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Nok culture appeared in Northern Nigeria around 1000 BCE and vanished under unknown circumstances around 300 CE in the region of West Africa. It is thought to have been the product of an ancestral nation that branched to create the Hausa, Gwari, Birom, Kanuri, Nupe and Jukun peoples.<br/><br/>

The Nok social system is thought to have been highly advanced. Nok culture is considered to be one of the earliest African producers of life-sized Terracotta figures.
'Battle Royal for Benin relics'. Headline from the Glasgow Herald, January 25 1997.
The Benin Empire (1440–1897) was a pre-colonial African state in what is now modern Nigeria. It is not to be confused with the modern-day country called Benin (and formerly called Dahomey).
Between 700 and 900 A.D., Ife began to develop as a major artistic center.The city was a settlement of substantial size between the 9th and 12th centuries, with houses featuring potsherd pavements. Ilé-Ifè is known worldwide for its ancient and naturalistic bronze, stone and terracotta sculptures, which reached their peak of artistic expression between 1200 and 1400 A.D. After this period, production declined as political and economic power shifted to the nearby kingdom of Benin which, like the Yoruba kingdom of Oyo, developed into a major empire. Bronze and terracotta art created by this civilization and significant examples of realism in early African art.
The Benin Empire (1440–1897) was a pre-colonial African state in what is now modern Nigeria. It is not to be confused with the modern-day country called Benin (and formerly called Dahomey).
The Benin Empire (1440–1897) was a pre-colonial African state in what is now modern Nigeria. It is not to be confused with the modern-day country called Benin (and formerly called Dahomey).
Pascaert vande Bocht van Benin. Copper engraving, uncolored as published. This decorative sea chart shows Benin in West Africa. Amsterdam, C. Vogt, 1684.
Between 700 and 900 CE, the Ife Kingdom developed as a major artistic center. The city was a settlement of substantial size between the 9th and 12th centuries, with houses featuring potsherd pavements. Ife is known worldwide for its ancient and naturalistic bronze, stone and terracotta sculptures, which reached their peak of artistic expression between 1200 and 1400 A.D. After this period, production declined as political and economic power shifted to the nearby kingdom of Benin which, like the Yoruba kingdom of Oyo, developed into a major empire. Bronze and terracotta art created by this civilization and significant examples of realism in early African art.
Between 700 and 900 CE, the Ife Kingdom developed as a major artistic center. The city was a settlement of substantial size between the 9th and 12th centuries, with houses featuring potsherd pavements. Ife is known worldwide for its ancient and naturalistic bronze, stone and terracotta sculptures, which reached their peak of artistic expression between 1200 and 1400 A.D. After this period, production declined as political and economic power shifted to the nearby kingdom of Benin which, like the Yoruba kingdom of Oyo, developed into a major empire. Bronze and terracotta art created by this civilization and significant examples of realism in early African art.
Between 700 and 900 CE, the Ife Kingdom developed as a major artistic center. The city was a settlement of substantial size between the 9th and 12th centuries, with houses featuring potsherd pavements. Ife is known worldwide for its ancient and naturalistic bronze, stone and terracotta sculptures, which reached their peak of artistic expression between 1200 and 1400 A.D. After this period, production declined as political and economic power shifted to the nearby kingdom of Benin which, like the Yoruba kingdom of Oyo, developed into a major empire. Bronze and terracotta art created by this civilization and significant examples of realism in early African art.
Between 700 and 900 CE, the Ife Kingdom developed as a major artistic center. The city was a settlement of substantial size between the 9th and 12th centuries, with houses featuring potsherd pavements. Ife is known worldwide for its ancient and naturalistic bronze, stone and terracotta sculptures, which reached their peak of artistic expression between 1200 and 1400 A.D. After this period, production declined as political and economic power shifted to the nearby kingdom of Benin which, like the Yoruba kingdom of Oyo, developed into a major empire. Bronze and terracotta art created by this civilization and significant examples of realism in early African art.
The Benin Empire (1440–1897) was a pre-colonial African state in what is now modern Nigeria. It is not to be confused with the modern-day country called Benin (and formerly called Dahomey).
Edo is the name for the place, people and language of an ethnic group in Nigeria. Other Edo-speaking ethnic groups include the Esan and the Afemai. Also referred to as Bini or Benin ethnic group though currently the people prefer to be simply called Edo, the Edo are the descendants of the people who founded the Benin Empire, which is located in South/Mid-Western Nigeria now called Edo State.
Sir Olateru Olagbegi II, Olowo of Owo (1910 - 1998) was the King (Olowo) of Owo, an ancient city which was once the capital of an Eastern Yoruba city state in Nigeria. He was appointed Olowo in 1941 and ruled for 25 years before he was deposed. In 1993, he was re-appointed to his former title of Olowo after the death of the reigning monarch. He died in October 1998 and crown passed to his son Oba Folagbade Olagbegi III.
The Benin Empire (1440–1897) was a pre-colonial African state in what is now modern Nigeria. It is not to be confused with the modern-day country called Benin (and formerly called Dahomey).
King N'oba N'edo Uku Akpolokpolo Akenzua II, Oba of Benin (1933-1978).
The Benin Empire (1440–1897) was a pre-colonial African state in what is now modern Nigeria. It is not to be confused with the modern-day country called Benin (and formerly called Dahomey).
Head of an oba, Edo bronze sculpture from the court of Benin, Nigeria, 16th century. The Benin Empire (1440–1897) was a pre-colonial African state in what is now modern Nigeria. It is not to be confused with the modern-day country called Benin (and formerly called Dahomey).
King of Benin with Soldiers, late 17th century, from Dapper, Description de l'Afrique  Traduite du Flamand (1686).
Oba Ademuwagun Adesida II, the Deji (ruler) of Akure (1950s).
Ovonramwen, Oba of Benin (1897).
'Negroland and Guinea with the European Settlements, Explaining what belongs to England, Holland, Denmark, etc'. By H. Moll Geographer (Printed and sold by T. Bowles next ye Chapter House in St. Pauls Church yard, & I. Bowles at ye Black Horse in Cornhill, 1729).
The Benin Empire (1440–1897) was a pre-colonial African state in what is now modern Nigeria. It is not to be confused with the modern-day country called Benin (and formerly called Dahomey).
The Benin Empire (1440–1897) was a pre-colonial African state in what is now modern Nigeria. It is not to be confused with the modern-day country called Benin (and formerly called Dahomey).
The Benin Empire (1440–1897) was a pre-colonial African state in what is now modern Nigeria. It is not to be confused with the modern-day country called Benin (and formerly called Dahomey).
The Benin Expedition of 1897 was a punitive expedition by a British force of 1,200 under Admiral Sir Harry Rawson in response to a massacre of a previous British-led invasion force. His troops captured, burned, and looted the city of Benin, bringing to an end the West African Kingdom of Benin. During the conquering and burning of the city, much of the country’s art, including the Benin Bronzes, was either destroyed, looted or dispersed.
The Benin Empire (1440–1897) was a pre-colonial African state in what is now modern Nigeria. It is not to be confused with the modern-day country called Benin (and formerly called Dahomey).
Between 700 and 900 CE, the Ife Kingdom developed as a major artistic center. The city was a settlement of substantial size between the 9th and 12th centuries, with houses featuring potsherd pavements. Ife is known worldwide for its ancient and naturalistic bronze, stone and terracotta sculptures, which reached their peak of artistic expression between 1200 and 1400 A.D. After this period, production declined as political and economic power shifted to the nearby kingdom of Benin which, like the Yoruba kingdom of Oyo, developed into a major empire. Bronze and terracotta art created by this civilization and significant examples of realism in early African art.
The Benin Empire (1440–1897) was a pre-colonial African state in what is now modern Nigeria. It is not to be confused with the modern-day country called Benin (and formerly called Dahomey).
The Benin Empire (1440–1897) was a pre-colonial African state in what is now modern Nigeria. It is not to be confused with the modern-day country called Benin (and formerly called Dahomey).
The Benin Empire (1440–1897) was a pre-colonial African state in what is now modern Nigeria. It is not to be confused with the modern-day country called Benin (and formerly called Dahomey).
The Benin Empire (1440–1897) was a pre-colonial African state in what is now modern Nigeria. It is not to be confused with the modern-day country called Benin (and formerly called Dahomey).
The Benin Empire (1440–1897) was a pre-colonial African state in what is now modern Nigeria. It is not to be confused with the modern-day country called Benin (and formerly called Dahomey).
The Benin Empire (1440–1897) was a pre-colonial African state in what is now modern Nigeria. It is not to be confused with the modern-day country called Benin (and formerly called Dahomey).
The Benin Empire (1440–1897) was a pre-colonial African state in what is now modern Nigeria. It is not to be confused with the modern-day country called Benin (and formerly called Dahomey).
The Benin Empire (1440–1897) was a pre-colonial African state in what is now modern Nigeria. It is not to be confused with the modern-day country called Benin (and formerly called Dahomey).
Bronze figurine of an Edo warrior with hunting leopard from the court of Benin, Nigeria, 16th century. The Benin Empire (1440–1897) was a pre-colonial African state in what is now modern Nigeria. It is not to be confused with the modern-day country called Benin (and formerly called Dahomey).
The Qur’an is the religious text of Islam. It is widely regarded as the finest piece of literature in the Arabic language. Muslims hold that the Qur’an is the verbal divine guidance and moral direction for mankind. Muslims also consider the original Arabic verbal text to be the final revelation of God and believe that the Qur’an was repeatedly revealed from Allah to Muhammad verbally through the angel Jibril (Gabriel) over a period of approximately 33 years, beginning in 610 CE.
Between 700 and 900 CE, the Ife Kingdom developed as a major artistic center. The city was a settlement of substantial size between the 9th and 12th centuries, with houses featuring potsherd pavements. Ife is known worldwide for its ancient and naturalistic bronze, stone and terracotta sculptures, which reached their peak of artistic expression between 1200 and 1400 A.D. After this period, production declined as political and economic power shifted to the nearby kingdom of Benin which, like the Yoruba kingdom of Oyo, developed into a major empire. Bronze and terracotta art created by this civilization and significant examples of realism in early African art.
The Benin Empire (1440–1897) was a pre-colonial African state in what is now modern Nigeria. It is not to be confused with the modern-day country called Benin (and formerly called Dahomey).
The Benin Empire (1440–1897) was a pre-colonial African state in what is now modern Nigeria. It is not to be confused with the modern-day country called Benin (and formerly called Dahomey).
Ngozi Okonjo-Iweala (born June 13, 1954) was Finance Minister and Foreign Minister of Nigeria, notable for being the first woman to hold either of those positions. She served as finance minister from July 2003 until her appointment as foreign minister in June 2006, and as foreign minister until her resignation in August 2006. On October 4 2007 she was appointed as Managing Director of the World Bank. She retired from the position in July 2011.
The Benin Empire (1440–1897) was a pre-colonial African state in what is now modern Nigeria. It is not to be confused with the modern-day country called Benin (and formerly called Dahomey).
The Benin Empire (1440–1897) was a pre-colonial African state in what is now modern Nigeria. It is not to be confused with the modern-day country called Benin (and formerly called Dahomey).<br/><br/>

Manillas are penannular armlets, mostly in bronze or copper, very rarely gold, which served as a form of commodity money (and, to a degree, ornamentation) among certain West African peoples (Aro Confederacy, Guinea Coast, Gold Coast, Calabar and other parts of Nigeria, etc.).<br/><br/>

This form of African currency also became known as 'slave trade money' after the Europeans started using them to acquire slaves for the slave trade into the Americas.
The Benin Empire (1440–1897) was a pre-colonial African state in what is now modern Nigeria. It is not to be confused with the modern-day country called Benin (and formerly called Dahomey).
The Benin Empire (1440–1897) was a pre-colonial African state in what is now modern Nigeria. It is not to be confused with the modern-day country called Benin (and formerly called Dahomey).
The Benin Empire (1440–1897) was a pre-colonial African state in what is now modern Nigeria. It is not to be confused with the modern-day country called Benin (and formerly called Dahomey).