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From 1861 to 1890 the Munich publishing firm of Braun and Schneider published plates of historic and contemporary  costume in their magazine Munchener Bilderbogen.<br/><br/>

These plates were eventually collected in book form and published at the turn of the century in Germany and England.
From 1861 to 1890 the Munich publishing firm of Braun and Schneider published plates of historic and contemporary  costume in their magazine Munchener Bilderbogen.<br/><br/>

These plates were eventually collected in book form and published at the turn of the century in Germany and England.
Alexander Vasilyevich Kolchak (Russian: Алекса́ндр Васи́льевич Колча́к, 16 November [O.S. 4 November] 1874 – 7 February 1920) was a polar explorer and commander in the Imperial Russian Navy, who fought in the Russo-Japanese War and the First World War. During the Russian Civil War, he established a counter-revolutionary government in Siberia—later the Provisional All-Russian Government—and was recognised as the 'Supreme Ruler and Commander-in-Chief of All Russian Land and Sea Forces' by the other leaders of the White movement (1918–1920).<br/><br/>

His government was based in Omsk, in southwestern Siberia. He tried to defeat Bolshevism by ruling as a dictator but his government proved weak and confused. For example, he lost track of the imperial gold reserves and much of it disappeared. He failed to unite all the disparate elements. He refused to consider autonomy for ethnic minorities, refused to collaborate with non-Bolshevik leftists, and relied too heavily on outside aid. As his White forces fell apart, he was captured by independents and handed over to the Bolsheviks, who executed him.
At the outbreak of World War I the mounted Cossacks made up 38 regiments, plus some infantry battalions and 52 horse artillery batteries. By 1916 their wartime strength had expanded to 160 regiments plus 176 independent sotnias (squadrons), the latter employed as detached units. While about a third of the regular Russian cavalry was dismounted in 1916 to serve as infantry, the Cossack arm remained essentially unaffected by modernization.<br/><br/>

In the Russian Civil War that followed the October Revolution, various Cossacks supported each side of the conflict. Cossacks formed the core of the White Army, but many also fought with the Red Army.<br/><br/>

Following the defeat of the White Army, the new Communist regime instituted a policy of harsh repressions, the so-called Decossackization, which took place on the surviving Cossacks and their homelands.
Alexander Vasilyevich Kolchak (Russian: Алекса́ндр Васи́льевич Колча́к, 16 November [O.S. 4 November] 1874 – 7 February 1920) was a polar explorer and commander in the Imperial Russian Navy, who fought in the Russo-Japanese War and the First World War. During the Russian Civil War, he established a counter-revolutionary government in Siberia—later the Provisional All-Russian Government—and was recognised as the 'Supreme Ruler and Commander-in-Chief of All Russian Land and Sea Forces' by the other leaders of the White movement (1918–1920).<br/><br/>

His government was based in Omsk, in southwestern Siberia. He tried to defeat Bolshevism by ruling as a dictator but his government proved weak and confused. For example, he lost track of the imperial gold reserves and much of it disappeared. He failed to unite all the disparate elements. He refused to consider autonomy for ethnic minorities, refused to collaborate with non-Bolshevik leftists, and relied too heavily on outside aid. As his White forces fell apart, he was captured by independents and handed over to the Bolsheviks, who executed him.
Alexander Vasilyevich Kolchak (Russian: Алекса́ндр Васи́льевич Колча́к, 16 November [O.S. 4 November] 1874 – 7 February 1920) was a polar explorer and commander in the Imperial Russian Navy, who fought in the Russo-Japanese War and the First World War. During the Russian Civil War, he established a counter-revolutionary government in Siberia—later the Provisional All-Russian Government—and was recognised as the 'Supreme Ruler and Commander-in-Chief of All Russian Land and Sea Forces' by the other leaders of the White movement (1918–1920).<br/><br/>

His government was based in Omsk, in southwestern Siberia. He tried to defeat Bolshevism by ruling as a dictator but his government proved weak and confused. For example, he lost track of the imperial gold reserves and much of it disappeared. He failed to unite all the disparate elements. He refused to consider autonomy for ethnic minorities, refused to collaborate with non-Bolshevik leftists, and relied too heavily on outside aid. As his White forces fell apart, he was captured by independents and handed over to the Bolsheviks, who executed him.
Alexander Vasilyevich Kolchak (Russian: Алекса́ндр Васи́льевич Колча́к, 16 November [O.S. 4 November] 1874 – 7 February 1920) was a polar explorer and commander in the Imperial Russian Navy, who fought in the Russo-Japanese War and the First World War. During the Russian Civil War, he established a counter-revolutionary government in Siberia—later the Provisional All-Russian Government—and was recognised as the 'Supreme Ruler and Commander-in-Chief of All Russian Land and Sea Forces' by the other leaders of the White movement (1918–1920).<br/><br/>

His government was based in Omsk, in southwestern Siberia. He tried to defeat Bolshevism by ruling as a dictator but his government proved weak and confused. For example, he lost track of the imperial gold reserves and much of it disappeared. He failed to unite all the disparate elements. He refused to consider autonomy for ethnic minorities, refused to collaborate with non-Bolshevik leftists, and relied too heavily on outside aid. As his White forces fell apart, he was captured by independents and handed over to the Bolsheviks, who executed him.
The Canadian Siberian Expeditionary Force, commanded by Major General James H. Elmsley and authorised in August 1918, was sent to Vladivostok to bolster the allied presence there. Composed of 4,192 soldiers, the force returned to Canada between April and June 1919.<br/><br/>

During this time, the Canadians saw little fighting, with fewer than 100 troops proceeding 'up country' to Omsk, to serve as administrative staff for 1,500 British troops aiding the White Russian government of Admiral Alexander Kolchak. Most Canadians remained in Vladivostok, undertaking routine drill and policing duties in the volatile port city.
Cossacks (Ukrainian: козаки́, kozaky, Russian: казаки́, tr. kazaki) are a group of predominantly East Slavic people who originally were members of democratic, semi-military communities in Ukraine and Southern Russia. They inhabited sparsely populated areas and islands in the lower Dnieper and Don basins, and played an important role in the historical development of both Ukraine and Russia.<br/><br/>

The origins of the first Cossacks are disputed. Traditional historiography dates the emergence of Cossacks to the 14th to 15th centuries. Towards the end of the 15th century, the Ukrainian Cossacks formed the Zaporozhian Sich centered on the fortified Dnipro islands. Initially a vassal of Poland-Lithuania, the increasing social and religious pressure from the Commonwealth caused them to proclaim an independent Cossack Hetmanate, initiated by a rebellion under Bohdan Khmelnytsky in the mid-17th century. Afterwards, the Treaty of Pereyaslav brought most of the Ukrainian Cossack state under Russian control for the next 300 years.<br/><br/>

During the Russian Civil War, Cossack regions became centres for the Anti-Bolshevik White movement, a portion of whom would form the White emigration. The Don and Kuban Cossacks even formed short-lived independent states, the Don Republic and the Kuban People's Republic, respectively. With the victory of the Red Army, the Cossack lands were subjected to famine, and suffered extensive repression. After the dissolution of the Soviet Union, the Cossack lifestyle and its ideas have made a return in Russia. In Russia's 2010 Population Census, Cossacks have been recognized as an ethnicity. There are Cossack organizations in Russia, Kazakhstan, Ukraine, and USA.
Hand-colored engraving from 'Moeurs, Usages, et Costumes de tous les Peuples de Monde, d'apres des Documents Authentiques et les Voyages les plus Recents', by Auguste Wahlen (Brussels, 1843-44).
The Siberian Intervention (シベリア出兵 - Shiberia Shuppei), or the Siberian Expedition of 1918–1922 was the dispatch of troops of the Entente powers to the Russian Maritime Provinces as part of a larger effort by the western powers and Japan to support White Russian forces against the Bolshevik Red Army in the final year of World War I and during the Russian Civil War.<br/><br/>

The Imperial Japanese Army continued to occupy Siberia even after other Allied forces had withdrawn in 1920.
The Siberian Intervention (シベリア出兵 - Shiberia Shuppei), or the Siberian Expedition of 1918–1922 was the dispatch of troops of the Entente powers to the Russian Maritime Provinces as part of a larger effort by the western powers and Japan to support White Russian forces against the Bolshevik Red Army in the final year of World War I and during the Russian Civil War.<br/><br/>

The Imperial Japanese Army continued to occupy Siberia even after other Allied forces had withdrawn in 1920.
An illustration from Stepan Krasheninnikov's Account of the Land of Kamchatka (1755). The Kamchatka Peninsula is a 1,250-kilometer long peninsula in the Russian Far East, with an area of 472,300 km2 (182,400 sq mi). It lies between the Pacific Ocean to the east and the Sea of Okhotsk to the west. Immediately offshore along the Pacific coast of the peninsula runs the 10,500-metre (34,400 ft) deep Kuril-Kamchatka Trench.
The Siberian Intervention (シベリア出兵 - Shiberia Shuppei), or the Siberian Expedition of 1918–1922 was the dispatch of troops of the Entente powers to the Russian Maritime Provinces as part of a larger effort by the western powers and Japan to support White Russian forces against the Bolshevik Red Army in the final year of World War I and during the Russian Civil War.<br/><br/>

The Imperial Japanese Army continued to occupy Siberia even after other Allied forces had withdrawn in 1920.
The Siberian Intervention (シベリア出兵 - Shiberia Shuppei), or the Siberian Expedition of 1918–1922 was the dispatch of troops of the Entente powers to the Russian Maritime Provinces as part of a larger effort by the western powers and Japan to support White Russian forces against the Bolshevik Red Army in the final year of World War I and during the Russian Civil War.<br/><br/>

The Imperial Japanese Army continued to occupy Siberia even after other Allied forces had withdrawn in 1920.
The Pazyryk burials are a number of Iron Age tombs found in the Pazyryk Valley of the Ukok plateau in the Altai Mountains, Siberia, south of the modern city of Novosibirsk. The tombs are Scythian kurgans, that is barrow-like tomb mounds of larch logs covered over by large cairns of boulders and stones, dated to between the 6th and 3rd centuries BCE. The Pazyryk kurgans are the type site of the wider Pazyryk culture. The site is included in the Golden Mountains of Altai UNESCO World Heritage Site.
The Siberian Intervention (シベリア出兵 - Shiberia Shuppei), or the Siberian Expedition of 1918–1922 was the dispatch of troops of the Entente powers to the Russian Maritime Provinces as part of a larger effort by the western powers and Japan to support White Russian forces against the Bolshevik Red Army in the final year of World War I and during the Russian Civil War.<br/><br/>

The Imperial Japanese Army continued to occupy Siberia even after other Allied forces had withdrawn in 1920.
The Siberian Intervention (シベリア出兵 - Shiberia Shuppei), or the Siberian Expedition of 1918–1922 was the dispatch of troops of the Entente powers to the Russian Maritime Provinces as part of a larger effort by the western powers and Japan to support White Russian forces against the Bolshevik Red Army in the final year of World War I and during the Russian Civil War.<br/><br/>

The Imperial Japanese Army continued to occupy Siberia even after other Allied forces had withdrawn in 1920.
The Siberian Intervention (シベリア出兵 - Shiberia Shuppei), or the Siberian Expedition of 1918–1922 was the dispatch of troops of the Entente powers to the Russian Maritime Provinces as part of a larger effort by the western powers and Japan to support White Russian forces against the Bolshevik Red Army in the final year of World War I and during the Russian Civil War.<br/><br/>

The Imperial Japanese Army continued to occupy Siberia even after other Allied forces had withdrawn in 1920.
The Siberian Intervention (シベリア出兵 - Shiberia Shuppei), or the Siberian Expedition of 1918–1922 was the dispatch of troops of the Entente powers to the Russian Maritime Provinces as part of a larger effort by the western powers and Japan to support White Russian forces against the Bolshevik Red Army in the final year of World War I and during the Russian Civil War.<br/><br/>

The Imperial Japanese Army continued to occupy Siberia even after other Allied forces had withdrawn in 1920.
A Hand-colored engraving from Auguste Wahlen, 'Moeurs, Usages, et Costumes de tous les Peuples de Monde, d'apres des Documents Authentiques et les Voyages les plus Recents' (Manners, Customs and Costumes of all the Peoples of the World taken from Authentic Documents and the Most Recent Travels), Brussels: 1843.
The Siberian Intervention (シベリア出兵 - Shiberia Shuppei), or the Siberian Expedition of 1918–1922 was the dispatch of troops of the Entente powers to the Russian Maritime Provinces as part of a larger effort by the western powers and Japan to support White Russian forces against the Bolshevik Red Army in the final year of World War I and during the Russian Civil War.<br/><br/>

The Imperial Japanese Army continued to occupy Siberia even after other Allied forces had withdrawn in 1920.
The Siberian Intervention (シベリア出兵 - Shiberia Shuppei), or the Siberian Expedition of 1918–1922 was the dispatch of troops of the Entente powers to the Russian Maritime Provinces as part of a larger effort by the western powers and Japan to support White Russian forces against the Bolshevik Red Army in the final year of World War I and during the Russian Civil War.<br/><br/>

The Imperial Japanese Army continued to occupy Siberia even after other Allied forces had withdrawn in 1920.
The Pazyryk (Russian: Пазырык) burials are a number of Iron Age tombs found in the Pazyryk Valley of the Ukok plateau in the Altai Mountains, Siberia, south of the modern city of Novosibirsk, Russia; the site is close to the borders with China, Kazakhstan and Mongolia.<br/><br/>

The tombs are Scythian-type kurgans, barrow-like tomb mounds containing wooden chambers covered over by large cairns of boulders and stones, dated to between the 6th and 3rd centuries BCE. The spectacular burials at Pazyryk are responsible for the introduction of the term kurgan, a Russian word of Turkic origin, into general usage to describe these tombs. The region of the Pazyryk kurgans is considered the type site of the wider Pazyryk culture. The site is included in the Golden Mountains of Altai UNESCO World Heritage Site.<br/><br/>

The bearers of the Pazyryk culture were horse-riding pastoral nomads of the steppe, and some may have accumulated great wealth through horse trading with merchants in Persia, India and China. This wealth is evident in the wide array of finds from the Pazyryk tombs, which include many rare examples of organic objects such as felt hangings, Chinese silk, the earliest known pile carpet, horses decked out in elaborate trappings, and wooden furniture and other household goods. These finds were preserved when water seeped into the tombs in antiquity and froze, encasing the burial goods in ice, which remained frozen in the permafrost until the time of their excavation.
The Siberian Intervention (シベリア出兵 - Shiberia Shuppei), or the Siberian Expedition of 1918–1922 was the dispatch of troops of the Entente powers to the Russian Maritime Provinces as part of a larger effort by the western powers and Japan to support White Russian forces against the Bolshevik Red Army in the final year of World War I and during the Russian Civil War.<br/><br/>

The Imperial Japanese Army continued to occupy Siberia even after other Allied forces had withdrawn in 1920.
The Siberian Intervention (シベリア出兵 - Shiberia Shuppei), or the Siberian Expedition of 1918–1922 was the dispatch of troops of the Entente powers to the Russian Maritime Provinces as part of a larger effort by the western powers and Japan to support White Russian forces against the Bolshevik Red Army in the final year of World War I and during the Russian Civil War.<br/><br/>

The Imperial Japanese Army continued to occupy Siberia even after other Allied forces had withdrawn in 1920.
Chukchi, or Chukchee are an indigenous people inhabiting the Chukchi Peninsula and the shores of the Chukchi Sea and the Bering Sea region of the Arctic Ocean within the Russian Federation. They speak the Chukchi language. The Chukchi originated from the people living around the Okhotsk Sea.
The Siberian Intervention (シベリア出兵 - Shiberia Shuppei), or the Siberian Expedition of 1918–1922 was the dispatch of troops of the Entente powers to the Russian Maritime Provinces as part of a larger effort by the western powers and Japan to support White Russian forces against the Bolshevik Red Army in the final year of World War I and during the Russian Civil War.<br/><br/>

The Imperial Japanese Army continued to occupy Siberia even after other Allied forces had withdrawn in 1920.
The Siberian Intervention (シベリア出兵 - Shiberia Shuppei), or the Siberian Expedition of 1918–1922 was the dispatch of troops of the Entente powers to the Russian Maritime Provinces as part of a larger effort by the western powers and Japan to support White Russian forces against the Bolshevik Red Army in the final year of World War I and during the Russian Civil War.<br/><br/>

The Imperial Japanese Army continued to occupy Siberia even after other Allied forces had withdrawn in 1920.
The Siberian Intervention (シベリア出兵 - Shiberia Shuppei), or the Siberian Expedition of 1918–1922 was the dispatch of troops of the Entente powers to the Russian Maritime Provinces as part of a larger effort by the western powers and Japan to support White Russian forces against the Bolshevik Red Army in the final year of World War I and during the Russian Civil War.<br/><br/>

The Imperial Japanese Army continued to occupy Siberia even after other Allied forces had withdrawn in 1920.
A Hand-colored engraving from Auguste Wahlen, 'Moeurs, Usages, et Costumes de tous les Peuples de Monde, d'apres des Documents Authentiques et les Voyages les plus Recents' (Manners, Customs and Costumes of all the Peoples of the World taken from Authentic Documents and the Most Recent Travels), Brussels: 1843.
The Siberian Intervention (シベリア出兵 - Shiberia Shuppei), or the Siberian Expedition of 1918–1922 was the dispatch of troops of the Entente powers to the Russian Maritime Provinces as part of a larger effort by the western powers and Japan to support White Russian forces against the Bolshevik Red Army in the final year of World War I and during the Russian Civil War.<br/><br/>

The Imperial Japanese Army continued to occupy Siberia even after other Allied forces had withdrawn in 1920.
The Siberian Intervention (シベリア出兵 - Shiberia Shuppei), or the Siberian Expedition of 1918–1922 was the dispatch of troops of the Entente powers to the Russian Maritime Provinces as part of a larger effort by the western powers and Japan to support White Russian forces against the Bolshevik Red Army in the final year of World War I and during the Russian Civil War.<br/><br/>

The Imperial Japanese Army continued to occupy Siberia even after other Allied forces had withdrawn in 1920.
The most famous undisturbed Pazyryk burial so far recovered is the 'Ice Maiden' found by archaeologist Natalia Polosmak in 1993, a rare example of a single woman given a full ceremonial wooden chamber-tomb in the 5th century BC, accompanied by six horses. She had been buried over 2,400 years ago in a casket fashioned from the hollowed-out trunk of a larch tree.<br/><br/>

On the outside of the casket were stylized images of deer and snow leopards carved in leather. Shortly after burial the grave had apparently been flooded by freezing rain and the entire contents of the burial chamber had remained frozen in permafrost. Six horses wearing elaborate harnesses had been sacrificed and lay on the logs which formed the roof of the burial chamber. The maiden's well-preserved body, carefully embalmed with peat and bark, was arranged to lie on her side as if asleep. She was young; her hair was still blonde; she had been 5 feet 6 inches tall. Even the animal style tattoos  were preserved on her pale skin: creatures with horns that develop into flowered forms. Her coffin was made large enough to accommodate the high felt headdress she was wearing, which had 15 gilded wooden birds sewn to it.
The Pazyryk burials are a number of Iron Age tombs found in the Pazyryk Valley of the Ukok plateau in the Altai Mountains, Siberia, south of the modern city of Novosibirsk. The tombs are Scythian kurgans, that is barrow-like tomb mounds of larch logs covered over by large cairns of boulders and stones, dated to between the 6th and 3rd centuries BCE. The Pazyryk kurgans are the type site of the wider Pazyryk culture. The site is included in the Golden Mountains of Altai UNESCO World Heritage Site.